Just think if you had to re-discover how to make fire, tan leather, extract bronze or iron from earth, or build a smartphone from scratch.
Around 60, years ago, cumulative cultural adaptation was what propelled modern humans out of Africa in small tribal groups, by enabling us to acquire knowledge and produce technologies suitable to different environments. This initially open project failed, turning into an authoritarian ethnicism just when literacy was expanding and linguistic Russification was identified as a major threat.
Although there are still disagreements over whether genocide or similar phenomena could occur in the premodern era, the French Revolution did establish a crucial precedent: Large groups also benefit from the efficiencies that flow from a division of labour, and from access to a vast shared store of information, skills, technology and good luck.
Some of these resulted in unprecedented forms of genocide, as with the American and Australian native populations. This section shifts the terms of the debate to the study of the history and breadth of state-led eliminationist strategies. It is also a trait that can be exploited by propagandists and to produce Kamikaze-like or other suicidal behaviors.
Some scholars see genocide as a perennial, nearly inevitable human phenomenon recurring periodically or cyclically. It was already discernible in the pre-Enlightenment methods by which Spanish elites had attempted to classify Native Americans between and Pagden Serbian accounts of the Jasenovac concentration camps in Croatia —5 were broadcast by Belgrade TV and other nationalist media between and to justify the first wave of ethnic cleansing on European soil since World War II Okey Once the Reconquista ended, it turned inward.
For the revolutionary leaders, this appeared to be a partial guarantee of obedience. At some point tribes formed that were essentially coalitions or bands of bands.
If you take this behaviour for granted, just imaginedogs or hyenas packed into a sporting arena — not a pretty sight. For instance, the Turkish—Greek expulsions were meant to homogenize the respective expelling homelands both ethnically and culturally. War and Genocide There is further consensus that interstate wars provide an ideal circumstance for carrying out atrocities which would be unthinkable otherwise see Melson ; Bartrop ; Fettweis ; Shaw ; Levene Homogenizing attempts can be traced as far back as ancient and medieval times, depending on how historians choose to approach the subject.
At each step formerly competing entities discovered that cooperation could return better outcomes than endless cycles of betrayal and revenge. The uniqueness of the Holocaust has been suggested by many see Rosenbaum ; Hilberg The correlation between nationalism and modernity depends on how the latter is defined.
Holocaust studies has traditionally been the most prolific area in genocide studies and in fact stands as a separate field on its own. French elites were keen to seize on these feelings and organize them into an anti-Protestant crusade.
A new generation of scholars has reverted to the pre-Enlightenment vision of the Mongols as bearers of civilization. Thus, it seems our tribal psychology can extend to groups of seemingly nearly any size.
Colonial genocide outlasted the demise of empire. Decades later, the final days of the British Raj evidenced massive atrocities against the Kikuyus and other tribes in Kenya Elkinswhile the entire population of Diego Garcia Chagos islands was secretly deported and their land given to the US Air Force in Curtis Rather than picking up where others have left off, they start over every generation.
Homogenization later peaked during the twentieth century, when state nationalism and its attendant politics emerged, resulting in a more coordinated, systematic approach toward cultural standardization.
Some authors regard the intentional bombing of civilian populations just short of genocide i. According to Secherat least 14 percent of the Vendeanspeople were exterminated between and The largest single population movement in modern European history was the exodus of Germans from central and eastern Europe at the end of World War II Lieberman Key members of the Frankfurt School, notably Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno, were among the first to identify genocide as an intrinsic feature of modernity Kaye and Strath After the Peace of Augsburgthe principle of cuius regio, eius religio where the religion of a country followed that of its ruler could not prevent the wars of religion.
In less than half a century, the coffee chain has grown from a single outlet in Seattle to nearly 20, shops in around 60 countries. Any sign of independence or opposition, in fact, was brutally suppressed. But if there was ever a species that could tackle these challenges it is our own.
The Apogee of Homogenization There is broad consensus that the period lasting from about to was crucial for both cultural homogenization and genocide. AfterTimur Tamerlane massacred almost all inhabitants of several Iranian cities, then ransacked Delhi, in India, executing in a single day overHindus, including women and children.
This is true even though Carthage was a city, not an ethnic, racial or national community, and inflicting exemplary forms of punishment was common in that era see Kiernan Typically, this process has been facilitated by totalitarian rule.
Genghis Khan razed Baghdad, Samarkand and several Iranian cities, decimating their populations. Modern humans have created many thousands of distinct cultures. So what will it mean if globalization turns us into one giant, homogenous world culture?
Revitalizing the Ethnosphere: Global Society, Ethnodiversity, and the Stakes of Cultural Genocide Christopher Powell Ph.D. Revitalizing the Ethnosphere: Global Society, Ethnodiversity, and the Stakes of Cultural Genocide cultural genocide in the context of the emerging global society. The global ethnosphere is the.
During the past week, Armenia’s cultural life was influenced by the 95th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. Famous cultural workers were speculating whether the art can really promote. Is a New Global Culture Emerging? Whatever side of the globalization debate one is on, one cannot deny that there has been an unstoppable movement—of commodities, people, money, technology, information, internet communication, satellites, and cable television—that is merging cultural boundaries.
Cultural genocide or cultural cleansing is a concept that lawyer Raphael Lemkin distinguished in as a component of genocide. The term was considered in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and juxtaposed next to the term "ethnocide," but it was removed in the final document, and simply replaced with.
Cultural Genocide The film “Cultural Genocide” presented Asa Hilliard III, an African American professor of educational psychology, who focused on the particularities of genocide, homicide and thesanfranista.coming to Hilliard, he recalls genocide as any one of the following acts with the attempt to destroy a national, ethnic, religious or racial group; few examples include killing members of.Cultural genocide and globalizationresearch article